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Bergamot cold-pressed citrus bergamia

Bitter orange

Bitter orange cold-pressed citrus aurantium 


a well-rounded composition


BoroniaBoronia grows or originates almost exclusively from Australia. There are around 95 species of boronia. The most fragrant boronia is the Boronia megastigma. It is often used in flower arrangements because of it's very intense perfume. The leaves of the boronia megastigma are also fragrant. The flowers are brown and cup shaped with yellow inside.

For perfumery the flowers are collected and then extracted using solvents to produce a concrete. The concrete is further extracted with alcohol to produce boronia absolute.

The absolute is semi-liquid and normally dark green and has a fruity tea like odor.

In natural perfumery boronia is used with mimosa, violet and honeysuckle base formulations.

Bottom Notes

notes within a perfume composition which are more tenacious and long-lasting; the last notes detected in the dry down of a perfume composition


refers to a blend of flower essences; used more often in pre-modern perfumery to describe rich floral compositions



Calamus acorus calamus


Camphor-like essences such as eucalyptus and tea tree; medicinal note found in lavender and rosemary


CarnationCarnation absolute is produced by the unusual method of alcohol washing of the concrete, which is obtained by solvent extraction of the flowers of the Dianthus Caryophylus or the garden carnation. The flowers are grown in most countries in Europe and also in the US. The only place that the concrete is made is in fact France. The yeild from the concrete is low according to sources. This makes it an expensive oil which might be frequently adulterated.

It has a an unusual fragrance which at first does not remind me of carnations but seems more herbal than one would expect. But after a few moments the smell of the freshly cut flowers comes out and it is quiet sweet and heavy. I have often read that clove and carnation go so well together and now I can see how that would be true. I would seem like the perfect complimentary note to carnation. Carnation is used in natural perfumery.

Steffan Arctander says of carnation absolute on P128 of Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin:

"Carnation is an olive green to green or orange-brown, viscous liquid of very sweet, honey like, somewhat herbaceous, heavy and tenacious fragrance, reminiscent of the scent of the live flowers only to a certain degree and only in high dilutions (5% or weaker)."

Carrier Oil

oil used as a base or diluent in oil-based and solid perfume making; typically jojoba and fractionated coconut oils due to their longer shelf lives

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