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Title: Calamus (Acorus calamus)

  • Definition: Calamus, also known as sweet flag, is a reed-like plant from which the essential oil is extracted. The botanical name is Acorus calamus.

  • Extraction: The essential oil of calamus is typically obtained through steam distillation of the dried roots (rhizomes) of the plant.

  • Characteristics:

    • Odor Profile: The oil has a warm, spicy, and slightly woody aroma, often described as a blend of cinnamon, ginger, and nutmeg with a hint of a leathery undertone.
    • Appearance: The oil is usually pale yellow to light brown in color.
    • Consistency: It has a medium to thick consistency.
  • Historical Context: Calamus has been used for centuries in traditional medicine, perfumery, and incense. It was highly valued in ancient cultures for its aromatic and therapeutic properties.

  • Uses in Natural Perfumery:

    • Fixative: Calamus oil is often used as a fixative in perfumery to stabilize and enhance the longevity of more volatile fragrances.
    • Blending: It blends well with other spicy, woody, and oriental notes, as well as with florals like rose and jasmine. It adds depth and warmth to perfume compositions.
    • Types of Perfumes: Calamus is commonly found in oriental, spicy, and chypre perfumes.
  • Safety Considerations: Some varieties of calamus oil contain high levels of beta-asarone, which can be toxic. Therefore, it is important to ensure the oil used is safe and free from harmful levels of this compound.

  • References:

    • Steffen Arctander: Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin.


Title: Camphoraceous

  • Definition: The term "camphoraceous" refers to essences that have a camphor-like aroma. These scents are often described as sharp, fresh, and medicinal.

  • Characteristics:

    • Odor Profile: Camphoraceous notes are characterized by a strong, penetrating, and cooling scent that is similar to that of camphor. This scent can evoke a sense of cleanliness and has a slightly medicinal quality.
    • Common Camphoraceous Oils:
      • Eucalyptus: Known for its fresh, clean, and somewhat sweet camphor-like aroma.
      • Tea Tree: Offers a strong, medicinal, and herbaceous camphoraceous scent.
      • Lavender: Contains subtle camphoraceous undertones that add to its fresh, herbal, and slightly sweet aroma.
      • Rosemary: Features a robust, herbaceous scent with prominent camphoraceous notes.
  • Uses in Natural Perfumery:

    • Blending: Camphoraceous notes are often used to add freshness and a clean quality to perfumes. They can uplift and invigorate a composition, making them suitable for creating vibrant and energizing fragrances.
    • Types of Perfumes: These notes are commonly found in herbal, medicinal, and fresh fragrances. They are also used in aromatherapy blends for their invigorating and clarifying properties.
  • Examples of Use:

    • Eucalyptus and Tea Tree: Often used in compositions that aim to create a sense of freshness and purity. These oils can also impart a slightly medicinal character to a blend.
    • Lavender and Rosemary: Used in formulations to add depth and complexity. The camphoraceous undertones enhance the overall freshness of the scent.
  • References:

    • Steffen Arctander: Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin.


Title: Carnation Absolute

  • Botanical Name: Dianthus caryophyllus

  • Production Method: Carnation absolute is produced by an unusual method of alcohol washing of the concrete, which is obtained through the solvent extraction of the flowers. While the flowers are grown in many European countries and the United States, the concrete is exclusively made in France.

  • Yield and Cost: The yield from the concrete is low, making it an expensive oil. Due to its high cost, carnation absolute is frequently adulterated.

  • Characteristics:

    • Appearance: Olive green to green or orange-brown, viscous liquid.
    • Odor Profile: Initially, the fragrance of carnation absolute does not immediately remind one of carnations, presenting a more herbal scent. However, after a few moments, the fragrance of freshly cut carnation flowers emerges, which is sweet and heavy. It has a very sweet, honey-like, somewhat herbaceous, heavy, and tenacious fragrance. In high dilutions (5% or weaker), it more closely resembles the scent of live flowers.
  • Uses in Natural Perfumery:

    • Blending: Carnation absolute pairs exceptionally well with clove, creating a harmonious and complementary note. This combination enhances the sweet and spicy profile in perfume compositions.
    • Perfume Types: Often used in floral and oriental compositions, carnation absolute adds depth, sweetness, and complexity to the blend. It is valued for its ability to provide a rich, honeyed, and herbaceous nuance to perfumes.
  • Aromatic Notes:

    • Top Note: Herbal
    • Middle Note: Sweet, floral (carnation-like)
    • Base Note: Honey-like, heavy, tenacious
  • Country of Origin: The flowers are grown in various European countries and the United States, with concrete production primarily in France.

  • Historical and Traditional Uses: Carnation has been valued for its distinctive fragrance and is a classic ingredient in many traditional perfumes. It has a long history of use in European perfumery and continues to be a treasured component in natural perfumery.

  • References:

    • Steffen Arctander: "Carnation is an olive green to green or orange-brown, viscous liquid of very sweet, honey-like, somewhat herbaceous, heavy, and tenacious fragrance, reminiscent of the scent of the live flowers only to a certain degree and only in high dilutions (5% or weaker)." (Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, p.128)

Carrier Oil

Title: Carrier Oil

  • Definition: Carrier oils are base oils used to dilute essential oils and absolutes before they are applied to the skin. They are also used as a base in oil-based and solid perfume making.

  • Common Types:

    • Jojoba Oil: Highly stable with a long shelf life. It is technically a liquid wax and is known for its moisturizing properties and similarity to the skin's natural sebum.
    • Fractionated Coconut Oil: A highly stable oil that remains liquid at room temperature. It is light, non-greasy, and has an extended shelf life due to the removal of long-chain triglycerides.
  • Characteristics:

    • Jojoba Oil:
      • Appearance: Clear to golden yellow liquid.
      • Odor: Virtually odorless, making it an excellent carrier that does not interfere with the fragrance of essential oils.
      • Properties: Moisturizing, non-greasy, long shelf life, and absorbs well into the skin.
    • Fractionated Coconut Oil:
      • Appearance: Clear, thin, and colorless liquid.
      • Odor: Odorless, which makes it a neutral carrier that doesn’t alter the scent of the essential oils it carries.
      • Properties: Lightweight, non-greasy, highly stable, and easily absorbed by the skin.
  • Uses in Natural Perfumery:

    • Dilution: Carrier oils are used to dilute essential oils to make them safe for topical application, reducing the risk of skin irritation.
    • Base for Perfume: They serve as the base for oil-based perfumes, helping to carry and preserve the fragrance of essential oils and absolutes.
    • Solid Perfumes: Used as a base ingredient in solid perfumes, combined with waxes and other ingredients to create a solid form.
  • Benefits:

    • Shelf Life: Both jojoba and fractionated coconut oils have long shelf lives, making them ideal for natural perfumery where stability and longevity are important.
    • Skin Compatibility: These carrier oils are generally well-tolerated by most skin types and provide additional skin benefits such as moisturization and nourishment.
    • Neutral Scent: Their lack of strong odor ensures that the true essence of the essential oils and absolutes can shine through without alteration.
  • Blending Suggestions:

    • With Essential Oils: Carrier oils can be blended with a variety of essential oils to create customized perfumes and therapeutic blends.
    • For Solid Perfumes: Combine with beeswax or plant-based waxes to create solid perfumes that can be easily applied.
  • Additional Notes: While jojoba and fractionated coconut oils are commonly used due to their superior properties, other carrier oils such as sweet almond, grapeseed, and apricot kernel oil can also be used depending on the desired texture, scent, and skin benefits.


Title: Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia)

Description: Cassia, also known as Chinese cinnamon, is derived from the bark of the Cinnamomum cassia tree. This tree is native to China and the bark is typically harvested in the autumn when the aromatic compounds are at their peak.

Extraction Method: The essential oil of cassia is obtained through steam distillation of the bark. This process results in a potent, spicy, and warm oil that is rich in cinnamaldehyde, which gives cassia its characteristic fragrance.

Characteristics: Cassia essential oil has a warm, sweet, and spicy aroma that is very similar to cinnamon but stronger and more intense. The oil is typically a golden yellow to reddish-brown color and is known for its robustness and tenacity.

Uses in Natural Perfumery: In natural perfumery, cassia is valued for its rich and complex scent profile. It is often used to impart warm and spicy notes to oriental and gourmand fragrances. Due to its strong aroma, cassia is typically used in small amounts as a base note or heart note to add depth and warmth to a composition.

Blending Suggestions: Cassia blends well with other spice oils such as clove, nutmeg, and ginger. It also complements the sweetness of vanilla and the richness of patchouli and sandalwood. In floral compositions, cassia can add an exotic and spicy undertone when used judiciously.

Safety Considerations: Cassia essential oil is very potent and can be a skin irritant if used undiluted. It should always be diluted in a carrier oil and used in low concentrations in perfumery. Additionally, it is important to perform a patch test to ensure there are no allergic reactions.

Reference: Steffen Arctander, Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin

Cassia, with its warm and spicy aroma, is a powerful and evocative ingredient in the natural perfumer's palette, capable of adding depth and complexity to a wide range of fragrance compositions.

Champaca or Champa Absolute

Title: Champaca Absolute (Michelia champaca)

Description: Champa absolute, derived from the flowers of Michelia champaca, is an exotic, rich, and deeply floral natural perfumery material. It is known for its captivating scent that combines warm caramel, peppery vanilla, and orchid notes, reminiscent of carnation and tuberose.

Extraction Method: The absolute is obtained by extracting the concrete, which is produced through solvent extraction of the yellow, magnolia-like flowers. These flowers grow on a medium-sized tree native to Indonesia, India, and Madagascar. In addition to the absolute, a CO2 extract of champaca is also available, which emphasizes the spicy caramel notes over the lily-type floral scent.

Characteristics: Champa absolute is celebrated for its unique fragrance profile. Steffen Arctander describes it as "delicately dry-floral," with nuances that remind one of orange flowers, ylang-ylang, carnation, and tearose. The absolute has a warm, deep floral aroma, while the CO2 extract is spicier and more caramel-like.

Uses in Natural Perfumery: In natural perfumery, champaca absolute is favored for its rich, exotic floral scent. It adds depth and complexity to floral compositions and blends exceptionally well with other floral notes such as carnation and rose. It is ideal for creating perfumes with an oriental or floral character.

Blending Suggestions: Champa absolute blends harmoniously with carnation, rose, and other delicate floral notes. It works well with fixatives that do not overpower its delicate scent, such as sandalwood, araucaria, benzoin, ambrette, and ambergris. In dilution, it reveals a soft, floral tea-like note.

Reference: Steffen Arctander, Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, p.160

Champa absolute, with its rich and multifaceted floral aroma, is a valuable ingredient for natural perfumers seeking to create luxurious and exotic fragrance compositions.


Title: Chord

Description: A chord in perfumery, also known as an accord, refers to a harmonious combination of three or more aromatic ingredients that blend together to create a single, unified essence. This combination is designed to achieve a specific scent profile that is greater than the sum of its parts.


  • Complexity: A chord typically exhibits a complexity that makes it stand out in a perfume composition, providing depth and richness to the overall scent.
  • Balance: The key to a successful chord is the balance between the individual notes, ensuring that no single component dominates the blend.
  • Harmony: The elements of a chord work together harmoniously, creating a seamless and well-rounded aroma.

Usage in Natural Perfumery: In natural perfumery, chords are used to build the foundation of a fragrance. They serve as the backbone of the perfume, around which other notes are layered to create a complex and multi-dimensional scent. Natural perfumers often craft chords from essential oils, absolutes, and other natural extracts to achieve the desired olfactory effect.


  • Floral Chord: A blend of rose, jasmine, and ylang-ylang essential oils to create a rich floral essence.
  • Citrus Chord: A combination of bergamot, sweet orange, and lemon oils to produce a vibrant and fresh citrus scent.
  • Woody Chord: A mix of sandalwood, cedarwood, and vetiver oils for a deep, earthy, and grounding aroma.

Importance: Creating effective chords is a fundamental skill in perfumery. It requires an understanding of how different scents interact and complement each other. Mastering the art of blending chords allows perfumers to craft intricate and captivating fragrances.

A chord, therefore, is not just a random mixture of scents, but a carefully constructed combination that provides a solid foundation and enhances the overall perfume composition.


Title: Chypre

Description: Chypre is a classic fragrance family characterized by a dominating blend of bergamot and oakmoss, rounded off with rich, woody essences such as patchouli and labdanum. The name "Chypre" comes from the French word for Cyprus, inspired by the Mediterranean island where these aromatic materials were traditionally sourced.


  • Citrus Top Notes: Bright and fresh notes, typically from bergamot, which give an initial burst of zestiness.
  • Woody and Mossy Heart: The heart of a chypre fragrance is grounded by oakmoss, lending a deep, earthy, and slightly damp aroma.
  • Rich Base Notes: The base notes often include patchouli and labdanum, providing warmth, complexity, and a lingering finish.

Usage in Natural Perfumery: In natural perfumery, chypre fragrances are valued for their sophistication and complexity. Perfumers use natural extracts and essential oils to craft these multifaceted scents, adhering to traditional methods and ingredients.


  • Top Notes: Bergamot essential oil, providing a fresh and lively citrus burst.
  • Heart Notes: Oakmoss absolute or tincture, delivering earthy and mossy nuances.
  • Base Notes: Patchouli essential oil and labdanum resin, adding depth and a rich, warm undertone.


  • Classic Chypre: A natural blend featuring bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli, and labdanum.
  • Floral Chypre: Incorporating natural floral notes like rose or jasmine into the traditional chypre structure.
  • Woody Chypre: Emphasizing the woody aspects with additional notes such as vetiver or cedarwood.

Importance: Chypre fragrances are celebrated for their balance and longevity. The interplay between the fresh top notes and the rich, earthy base creates a dynamic and enduring scent profile. These fragrances often evolve over time, revealing different facets as they dry down.

Ref: Steffen Arctander; Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin

A well-crafted chypre fragrance showcases the art of blending natural materials to create a harmonious and sophisticated scent experience.

Citrus Notes

Title: Citrus Notes

Description: Citrus notes refer to the bright, fresh, and uplifting fragrances derived from the peel, leaves, and sometimes the flowers of various citrus fruits. These notes are often used in natural perfumery to add a sparkling and refreshing top note to fragrance compositions.


  • Bright and Fresh: Citrus notes are known for their invigorating and lively scent.
  • Zesty and Tangy: They often have a sharp, tangy quality that can uplift the entire fragrance.
  • Volatile: Citrus oils are typically top notes due to their high volatility, meaning they evaporate quickly but make an immediate impression.

Common Citrus Essences:

  • Orange (Citrus sinensis): Sweet, bright, and fruity.
  • Lemon (Citrus limon): Sharp, tangy, and refreshing.
  • Lime (Citrus aurantiifolia): Tart, zesty, and vibrant.
  • Bergamot (Citrus bergamia): Sweet, tangy, and slightly floral.
  • Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi): Fresh, tangy, and slightly bitter.
  • Yuzu (Citrus junos): Complex, with a blend of tartness and sweetness.
  • Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus): Lemony, grassy, and slightly herbaceous.

Uses in Natural Perfumery:

  • Top Notes: Citrus essences are predominantly used as top notes in perfumery, providing an immediate burst of freshness.
  • Blending: They blend well with floral, herbal, and woody notes, adding complexity and lift to the fragrance.
  • Versatility: Citrus notes are versatile and can be used in a wide range of perfume types, from light and fresh colognes to more complex and layered compositions.


  • Uplifting: Citrus notes are known for their mood-enhancing and uplifting properties.
  • Versatile: Suitable for both men’s and women’s fragrances.
  • Natural Antioxidants: Many citrus oils contain natural antioxidants, adding an extra benefit to their use.

Example Combinations:

  • With Florals: Citrus notes can be paired with floral notes like jasmine, rose, or neroli to create a balanced and harmonious blend.
  • With Herbs: Combining citrus with herbal notes like basil, rosemary, or lavender can produce fresh and aromatic fragrances.
  • With Woods: Pairing with woody notes such as cedarwood or sandalwood can add depth and longevity to the bright citrus top notes.

Noteworthy Points:

  • Photosensitivity: Some citrus oils, particularly bergamot, can cause photosensitivity, leading to skin irritation when exposed to sunlight. It’s essential to use bergaptene-free (FCF) versions for topical applications.
  • Sourcing: High-quality citrus oils are typically cold-pressed from the peel of the fruit, ensuring the preservation of their fresh and vibrant scent.


Title: Classic

A scent that follows a traditional perfumery template, utilising a higher percentage of floral notes to create an essence with timeless appeal. 

Classic perfumes often adhere to well-established fragrance structures and are celebrated for their enduring elegance and refined compositions. They typically include a harmonious blend of top, middle, and base notes, with a focus on florals such as rose, jasmine, and violet, evoking a sense of nostalgia and sophistication.

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