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Title: Fixative

Fixatives are natural materials or compounds used in perfumery in small quantities (typically 1% to 3%) to enhance the longevity and stability of a perfume composition on the skin. These substances help to anchor the volatile aromatic components, slowing their evaporation and extending the overall duration of the fragrance.

Types of Fixatives:

  • Distilled Water and Floral Hydrosols: These are byproducts of essential oil distillation and impart a subtle aroma while contributing to the overall scent profile.
  • Resin and Wood Tinctures: Extracts from resins such as benzoin or tinctures from woods like sandalwood add depth and warmth to perfumes, while also serving as fixatives.
  • Styrax Benzoin: A resinous material with a sweet, balsamic scent that helps to blend and harmonise perfume compositions.
  • Vegetable Glycerin: Known for its moisturising properties, vegetable glycerin also acts as a fixative in perfumery.

Function: Fixatives work by binding to the skin and slowing the evaporation rate of the more volatile fragrance components. This helps the perfume to linger longer and maintain its character throughout the day.

Application: Perfumers carefully select fixatives based on their ability to complement the overall fragrance and enhance its longevity. The choice of fixative can significantly influence the final scent profile and performance of a perfume.

Natural Origins: In natural perfumery, fixatives are derived from botanical sources, aligning with the tradition of using natural materials to create luxurious and enduring fragrances.


Title: Flacon: 

A flacon refers to a bottle, typically crafted with delicate or ornate design elements, specifically used for storing perfumes. These bottles are often designed to enhance the aesthetic appeal of the fragrance they contain and may feature intricate decorations or elegant shapes. Flacons are generally equipped with tight-fitting stoppers or caps to preserve the fragrance from evaporation and oxidation.

Origins: The term "flacon" originates from the Old French word "flagon," which historically referred to a container for liquids, particularly wine or perfume. Over time, it evolved specifically to denote a perfume bottle, emphasising its importance in the presentation and preservation of fragrances.

Characteristics: Flacon bottles vary widely in size, shape, and material, ranging from small, portable vessels to larger, decorative containers. They are designed not only to hold perfume but also to showcase the craftsmanship and artistry associated with perfumery.

Importance: Beyond functionality, flacons serve as collectors' items and symbols of luxury, often adorned with intricate detailing, engravings, or labels that reflect the brand identity and the essence of the fragrance they hold.

Usage: Perfumers and fragrance houses carefully select flacons to complement the aesthetic and sensory experience of their perfumes, ensuring that the design harmonises with the fragrance's story and target audience.

Cultural Significance: Throughout history, flacons have symbolised elegance, refinement, and the art of perfumery, making them prized possessions and desirable gifts in both personal and ceremonial contexts.

Flat Note

Title: Flat Note

In perfumery, a flat note refers to a fragrance component that lacks vibrancy, depth, or complexity. It is characterised by its dull or uninspiring quality, often perceived as lacking liveliness or distinctiveness within a perfume composition.


  • Lack of Lift: Flat notes typically do not contribute to the overall brightness or freshness of a fragrance.
  • Absence of Body: They may lack richness, depth, or intensity, making them less prominent or noticeable in the scent profile.
  • Monotonous Quality: These notes may impart a dull or uninteresting aspect to the perfume, failing to evoke a memorable or captivating olfactory experience.


  • Poor Quality Ingredients: Flat notes can result from the use of inferior or improperly sourced raw materials.
  • Imbalanced Composition: Inadequate blending or formulation may lead to certain notes overshadowing others, diminishing their individual characteristics.
  • Storage and Ageing: Improper storage conditions or prolonged ageing of perfumes can cause ingredients to degrade, resulting in flat or stale notes.

Perfumer's Perspective:

  • Perfumers strive to avoid flat notes by carefully selecting high-quality ingredients and achieving a harmonious balance of fragrance components.
  • Through skilful blending and experimentation, perfumers enhance the complexity and dynamism of perfume compositions, ensuring each note contributes to a cohesive and engaging olfactory experience.


  • During perfume development, perfumers and evaluators assess for flat notes to refine and improve the fragrance's overall quality and appeal.
  • Consumer feedback plays a crucial role in identifying and addressing flat notes, guiding perfumers in creating perfumes that resonate with diverse preferences and expectations.


  • Techniques such as layering complementary ingredients, adjusting concentrations, or incorporating aromatic modifiers can help mitigate flat notes and elevate the perfume's sensory allure.
  • Continuous innovation and adherence to quality standards contribute to the creation of perfumes that captivate and leave a lasting impression on the wearer.


flower based composition


A word coined in modern perfumery to describe a scent that is classified as, or exhibits traits of being both floral and oriental in nature.


(pronounced foo-zhayr) any ferny, mossy scent with lavender at its heart; usually includes patchouli, labdanum, vanilla, tonka and benzoin


typified by light and airy notes found in green and citrus essences such as galbanum, violet leaf, lemon, lime, grapefruit, bergamot


fruit essences, usually does not include citrus oils; some examples of fruity essences are davana, magnolia, black currant bud, Roman chamomile; some fruit essences can be obtained through the use of tinctures of fruit like fig, dried currant, and berries