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Eau de Toilette

Title: Eau de Toilette

Eau de Toilette (EdT) represents a popular category in modern perfume making, known for its balanced composition and versatility. Typically comprising a perfume oil concentration ranging from 4 to 8%, blended with alcohol, Eau de Toilette strikes a middle ground between lightness and longevity. To refine the fragrance profile, a small percentage of distilled water or floral hydrosol is often incorporated, enhancing the scent without compromising its character. Eau de Toilette is widely favored for its fresh and vibrant notes that offer a pleasant and enduring fragrance experience suitable for daily wear. Its moderate intensity makes it an ideal choice for various occasions, providing a refined scent that evolves gracefully over time on the skin.


Title: Enfleurage

Enfleurage is an ancient method used to extract aromatic essences from botanical materials. This meticulous process involves placing fragrant flowers or botanicals on sheets of glass that have been coated with a layer of fat, often animal fat. The petals are repeatedly replaced and the fat is allowed to absorb their fragrance over time, resulting in a solid, scented pomade. Enfleurage is valued for its ability to capture delicate floral scents that are not easily extracted by other methods, preserving the purity and subtlety of natural fragrances.


Title: Essence

In perfumery, essence refers to the concentrated aromatic oils extracted from natural raw materials such as flowers, fruits, spices, woods, and resins. These essences are the fundamental building blocks used by perfumers to create fragrances. Each essence contributes its unique scent profile, ranging from floral and fruity to woody and spicy, ensuring diversity and complexity in perfume compositions. Extracted through various methods such as distillation, expression, and enfleurage, essences form the core ingredients that define the character and quality of natural perfumes.

Essential Oil

Title: Essential Oil

Essential oils are volatile aromatic compounds extracted from botanical sources through processes like distillation or cold-pressing. These oils capture the characteristic scents and therapeutic properties of plants, making them prized ingredients in natural perfumery and aromatherapy.

Steam Distillation: This method involves passing steam through plant material in a closed system. The steam causes the release of essential oils from the plant cells, and upon cooling, the mixture separates into water and essential oil, with the oil floating on top.

Expression (Cold-Pressing): Used primarily for citrus fruits such as lime, bergamot, and orange, this technique involves mechanically pressing the rind of the fruit to extract the essential oil. Unlike steam distillation, expression does not involve heat, preserving the delicate aroma of citrus oils.

Essential oils vary widely in scent and therapeutic properties, providing natural perfumers with a diverse palette to create fragrances that range from citrusy and fresh to floral and woody.


Title: Expression

Expression is a method used to extract aromatic materials, specifically essential oils, from plant sources, primarily citrus peels. Unlike steam distillation, which uses heat and steam, expression involves mechanical pressure to squeeze out the volatile oils contained in the rind or peel of fruits.

Process: Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and bergamots are commonly processed using expression. The fruit peel is mechanically pressed to rupture the oil-containing glands, releasing the essential oil along with some of the fruit's aromatic compounds. The resulting oil is then collected and used in natural perfumery, cosmetics, and aromatherapy.

Expression is favoured for citrus oils because it preserves the fresh, vibrant aroma of the fruit without exposure to heat, which can alter or degrade the delicate citrus scent. This method ensures that the extracted oils retain their true fragrance and therapeutic properties, making them valuable ingredients in fragrance compositions and other applications.


Title: Extrait

Extrait, also known as extrait de parfum or pure perfume, represents the highest concentration of scent in perfume making. It typically contains between 15% to 30% perfume composition blended with alcohol or another diluent.

Characteristics: Extrait is revered for its rich and intense fragrance profile, offering a potent olfactory experience that lingers on the skin for an extended period. Due to its high concentration of aromatic compounds, only a small amount is needed to achieve a lasting scent, making it one of the most luxurious and long-lasting forms of fragrance.

Application: Extrait is often preferred for special occasions or evening wear, where its deep, complex notes can unfold and evolve over time. Its luxurious nature and high concentration make it a coveted choice among perfume enthusiasts and connoisseurs.

Production: The production of extrait involves meticulous blending of essential oils, absolutes, and other aromatic ingredients with a carefully measured amount of alcohol or diluent. This meticulous process ensures that the final product maintains its intensity and integrity.



Title: Fixative

Fixatives are natural materials or compounds used in perfumery in small quantities (typically 1% to 3%) to enhance the longevity and stability of a perfume composition on the skin. These substances help to anchor the volatile aromatic components, slowing their evaporation and extending the overall duration of the fragrance.

Types of Fixatives:

  • Distilled Water and Floral Hydrosols: These are byproducts of essential oil distillation and impart a subtle aroma while contributing to the overall scent profile.
  • Resin and Wood Tinctures: Extracts from resins such as benzoin or tinctures from woods like sandalwood add depth and warmth to perfumes, while also serving as fixatives.
  • Styrax Benzoin: A resinous material with a sweet, balsamic scent that helps to blend and harmonise perfume compositions.
  • Vegetable Glycerin: Known for its moisturising properties, vegetable glycerin also acts as a fixative in perfumery.

Function: Fixatives work by binding to the skin and slowing the evaporation rate of the more volatile fragrance components. This helps the perfume to linger longer and maintain its character throughout the day.

Application: Perfumers carefully select fixatives based on their ability to complement the overall fragrance and enhance its longevity. The choice of fixative can significantly influence the final scent profile and performance of a perfume.

Natural Origins: In natural perfumery, fixatives are derived from botanical sources, aligning with the tradition of using natural materials to create luxurious and enduring fragrances.


Title: Flacon: 

A flacon refers to a bottle, typically crafted with delicate or ornate design elements, specifically used for storing perfumes. These bottles are often designed to enhance the aesthetic appeal of the fragrance they contain and may feature intricate decorations or elegant shapes. Flacons are generally equipped with tight-fitting stoppers or caps to preserve the fragrance from evaporation and oxidation.

Origins: The term "flacon" originates from the Old French word "flagon," which historically referred to a container for liquids, particularly wine or perfume. Over time, it evolved specifically to denote a perfume bottle, emphasising its importance in the presentation and preservation of fragrances.

Characteristics: Flacon bottles vary widely in size, shape, and material, ranging from small, portable vessels to larger, decorative containers. They are designed not only to hold perfume but also to showcase the craftsmanship and artistry associated with perfumery.

Importance: Beyond functionality, flacons serve as collectors' items and symbols of luxury, often adorned with intricate detailing, engravings, or labels that reflect the brand identity and the essence of the fragrance they hold.

Usage: Perfumers and fragrance houses carefully select flacons to complement the aesthetic and sensory experience of their perfumes, ensuring that the design harmonises with the fragrance's story and target audience.

Cultural Significance: Throughout history, flacons have symbolised elegance, refinement, and the art of perfumery, making them prized possessions and desirable gifts in both personal and ceremonial contexts.

Flat Note

Title: Flat Note

In perfumery, a flat note refers to a fragrance component that lacks vibrancy, depth, or complexity. It is characterised by its dull or uninspiring quality, often perceived as lacking liveliness or distinctiveness within a perfume composition.


  • Lack of Lift: Flat notes typically do not contribute to the overall brightness or freshness of a fragrance.
  • Absence of Body: They may lack richness, depth, or intensity, making them less prominent or noticeable in the scent profile.
  • Monotonous Quality: These notes may impart a dull or uninteresting aspect to the perfume, failing to evoke a memorable or captivating olfactory experience.


  • Poor Quality Ingredients: Flat notes can result from the use of inferior or improperly sourced raw materials.
  • Imbalanced Composition: Inadequate blending or formulation may lead to certain notes overshadowing others, diminishing their individual characteristics.
  • Storage and Ageing: Improper storage conditions or prolonged ageing of perfumes can cause ingredients to degrade, resulting in flat or stale notes.

Perfumer's Perspective:

  • Perfumers strive to avoid flat notes by carefully selecting high-quality ingredients and achieving a harmonious balance of fragrance components.
  • Through skilful blending and experimentation, perfumers enhance the complexity and dynamism of perfume compositions, ensuring each note contributes to a cohesive and engaging olfactory experience.


  • During perfume development, perfumers and evaluators assess for flat notes to refine and improve the fragrance's overall quality and appeal.
  • Consumer feedback plays a crucial role in identifying and addressing flat notes, guiding perfumers in creating perfumes that resonate with diverse preferences and expectations.


  • Techniques such as layering complementary ingredients, adjusting concentrations, or incorporating aromatic modifiers can help mitigate flat notes and elevate the perfume's sensory allure.
  • Continuous innovation and adherence to quality standards contribute to the creation of perfumes that captivate and leave a lasting impression on the wearer.


flower based composition

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