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whole botanical materials immersed in a hot medium, diluent or carrier; botanical material in warmed oil is considered an infusion


raw materials (essential oils, resins, absolutes, concretes, etc.) which do not dissolve in a diluent (alcohol, solvent, oil, water, etc.)



JasmineThere exists some 200 species of jasmine. Jasmine oils are extracted commercially from the jasmine Zambac (Arabian Jasmine) and jasmin grandiflorum (Common Jasmine).

Jasmine oil cannot be extracted by steam distillation. The main modern comercial method of extracting Jasmine oil is via solvent extraction.

Jasmine concrete is produced by solvent extraction of the fresh flowers.

Concrete of Jasmine sambac is a deep orange translucent mass of a jam like consistency. The sambac smells heady and intoxicating. Deep exotic floral with indolic, animalic undertones.

Concrete of grandiflorum is dark orange mass of jam like consistency. Grandiflorum is heady, intoxicating and fruity an exotic floral with peachy fruity notes.

Jasmine absolute is extracted from the concrete using alcohol.

Jasmine wax is a by product of this process.

Jasmine flowers of all varieties can be tinctured for use in perfumery.

Dried jasmine flowers usually don't have much of a smell and are mainly used in tea.




The Kadamba or Anthocephalus Cadamba tree is native to Northern India. An essential oil and a hexane extraction is produced from the flowers but the yeild is very small. The perfume from the flowers is intoxicating at night. 

According to Steffen Arctander "This is one of the rare perfume materials which deserves a permanent and prominent place on the perfumer's shelf." 

He describes it as "woody floral and sweet odor with a short lived top note. The dry out is delightfully sweet floral, reminiscence of champaca and neroli. The tenacity of this fragrance is almost incredible." 

Ref: Steffen Arctander; Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin




LabdanumLabdanum comes from the natural exudation of the plant Cistus landaniferus which is a small shrub growing wild in countries of the Mediterranean and the middle east. It grows well near the sea. The Labdanum gum or resinous material is further extracted by solvents to form an absolute. The absolute is commonly used in as a fixative in perfumes of the amber classification. Stefan Arctander says of Labdanum Resin Absolute on P 333 of Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin: “The odor of labdanum is sweet, herbaceous-balsamic, somewhat ambra-like and slightly animalic, rich and tenacious.”


LavenderThere are many different types of lavender plants and of those plants there are many types of lavender essential oil and absolute used in natural perfumery.

Lavandin Arbaralis (Lavandula hybrida) is not often used in perfumery as the smell is medicine like and sort of falls into the same set as tea tree, eucalyptus, camphor.
Both absolutes, the Spanish Lavender Seville (Lavandula luisieri) and the Bulgarian Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) share similar nuances to each another but seem nothing like any one of the essential oils. The absolutes are more woody spicy, with the Bulgarian Lavender having an interesting almond note on the dry out.
The French Lavender essential oil develops cool herbal notes which were clean and crisp and the Indian Kashmir Lavender develops a clean but sweet note on the dry out.
Arctander says about Lavender essential oil "lavender essential oil blends well with Bergamot, and other citrus oils, clove oils (for "Rondeletia" type perfumes), fluve, liatris, oakmoss, patchouli, rosemary, clary sage, pine needle oils, etc. "
He also says in relation to Lavender oil "Labdanum products are excellent fixatives..."
Arctander says of Lavender absolute: "Lavender absolute...of very rich, sweet- herbaceous, somewhat floral odor; in dilution it bears a close resmblance to the odor of the flowering lavender shrubs. It's woody-herby undertone and courmarin-like sweetness duplicate the odor of the botanical material far better than the essential oil. The absolute is sweeter but less floral the the essential oil, and the two materials can form a very pleasant combination".


A blend that is reminiscent of leather often including tobacco and smoky scents such as cade. Most noted leather scents include Peau d'Espagne and Cuir de Russie (see for more info.)

Lemon cold-pressed

citrus limonum 

Lime cold-pressed

citrus aurantifolia 


A phenomenon where two or more ingredients interact to create an overwhelmingly strong scent that overtakes a blend.

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