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a note obtained through the blending of sweet, woody notes with fruity, green or citrus notes; typified by the use of vanilla, patchouli, benzoin, labdanum, cananga/ylang-ylang, rose, sandalwood and/or bergamot


Raw Material

botanical or animal based material used in perfumery; essential oils, absolutes, tinctures, infusions, concretes, pomades, CO2 extractions, etc. are all examples of a raw material


(see Balsam and Gums)sweet, warm, woody, resinous materials; exudates of trees.


roseRose oils are extracted from the Rosa Damascena (Bulgarian) and Rosa Centifolia (Moroccan) also known as 'rose de mai'.

Rose otto is the essential oil steam distilled from fresh roses.

Rose concrete a solvent extraction of fresh roses.

Rose absolute is extracted from the rose concrete using alcohol.

Rose otto is distilled from the Bulgarian rose or rosa damscena. The otto is an almost clear pale yellow liquid. When it is very cold it solidifies but it is easily warmed to liquid again. Rose otto smells rich, floral, warm and spicy with honey undertones. The smell of fresh roses becomes more apparent at when the otto is diluted. Rose otto is the most expensive extract of roses.

Rose concrete from Rosa Damscena is a deep orange colored mass of a jam-like consistency, can be greenish yellow. The smell is sweet rich floral very like fresh roses with warm honey spicy undertones.

Rose Concrete from Rosa Centifolia a deep orange colored mass of a jam-like consistency, can be greenish yellow. The smell is sweet floral, rich woody tea like.

According to Shiseido there are 6 scent classification of a rose scent:

  • Damask Classic
    The typical scent of the rose, comprised of strong and sweet Rosa centifolia that becomes an essence base, and the exuberant scent of Rosa gallica.
  • Damask Modern
    Basically the same as Damask Classic, but since its composition is different, it gives off a more passionate, sophisticated scent.
  • Scent of Tea
    The scent of hybrid tea roses that opened the door to modern roses. Its scent is refined and graceful with the base note of green violet. Many modern roses have this type of scent.
  • Fruity Scent
    Has the characteristics of both Damask Classic and the Tea Rose, and gives off the aroma of peach, apricot and apple.
  • Blue Scent
    Roses of a unique blue scent have the characteristics of both Damask Modern and Tea.
  • Spicy Scent
    The strong scent of cloves are contained in the scent of Damask Classic.


Tree from the Hylea Brasiliensis, the Amazonian Jungle, from Lauraceae family, with the wood rich in linalol and smelling like rose. The species reaches 30m.

Used as fixative in many perfumes, it sweetens the aroma of flowers, enlightening the dullest of blends.

Used in Aromatherapy to stimulate the immune system.

The tree is threatened with extinction because of its scent and many uses ( furniture, floors, guitar making, etc), but there are some self sufficient plantations like in Ducke Conservation Park in a river island called Silves where they extract ECOCERT essential oil of rosewood, preciosa and other scented trees of the Amazon forests, and the women make handcrafted goods with them.



Title: Saffron

Botanical Name

The botanical name of the plant used to produce saffron absolute is Crocus sativus.


Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world, known for its dark red gold color. It is obtained from the flowers of the Crocus sativus. While the flowers themselves are light purple, the thread-like stamens within are deep red, and these stamens constitute the saffron. Harvested in the autumn, the process of separating the stamens from the flowers is extremely laborious, requiring 70,000 pounds of flowers to yield just one pound of saffron. The odor of saffron is reminiscent of sea air, making it a unique and luxurious component in natural perfumery.


  • Perfumery: Saffron absolute is highly valued in natural perfumery for its unique and luxurious scent, adding a rich, exotic note to fragrances.
  • Aromatherapy: Saffron absolute is used in aromatherapy for its potential therapeutic benefits due to its concentrated nature.
  • Cosmetics: It is incorporated into skincare and haircare products for its aromatic properties and potential benefits to the skin.

Additionally, saffron is used to flavor and add a yellow color to rice and as a natural dye for fabrics.

Goes Well With

Saffron absolute blends well with a variety of essential oils and other natural extracts. Some popular combinations include:

  • Sandalwood
  • Vanilla
  • Rose oils

The Extraction Process

  1. Harvesting: The plant material is harvested at peak fragrance times in the autumn.
  2. Solvent Extraction: The saffron stamens are processed to create a concrete using solvents.
  3. Alcohol Extraction: The concrete is then treated with alcohol to separate the absolute.
  4. Purification: The absolute is purified and filtered to remove any impurities.

Why Choose Absolutes?

Absolutes are chosen for their unmatched aromatic complexity and strength, making them invaluable in creating luxurious and enduring perfumes.


Saffron absolute is an essential component in the world of natural perfumery, offering an intense and multifaceted scent that enhances any fragrance blend. Its versatility and potency make it a favorite among perfumers and aromatherapists alike. In natural antiquarian botanical perfumery, saffron is especially prized for its unique and rich aroma, adding an exotic touch to various fragrance compositions.


A term often used in perfumery to describe the trail of scent you leave behind you.
The term is derived from the French language, and is defined as: wake, slipstream, or trail.


raw materials (essential oils, resins, absolutes, concretes, etc.) which dissolve in a diluent (alcohol, solvent, oil, water, etc.)


fluid materials used to dissolve and extract volatile elements of botanicals (water, alcohol, hexane, oil, etc.)


Notes which are typically hot in character, such as clove, pepper and cinnamon.

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