Friday, 14 June 2024, 3:44 AM
Site: Natural Perfume Academy
Course: Natural Perfume Academy (NPA)
Glossary: Natural Perfume Academy Main Glossary


Title: Concrete

Concrete is a highly concentrated, waxy substance obtained through solvent extraction of botanical materials. This fragrant material is created by immersing plant materials, such as flowers, leaves, or roots, in a solvent like hexane. The solvent dissolves the aromatic compounds, along with waxes and other lipophilic (fat-loving) substances. After the solvent is evaporated, what remains is a semi-solid, waxy substance known as concrete.

Concretes are known for their rich, full-bodied aroma, capturing a wide spectrum of the plant's scent profile, including some of the more delicate and volatile top notes that may be lost in steam distillation. They are typically used as an intermediary product in the production of absolutes, which are further refined to remove the waxes and non-fragrant components.

Due to their concentrated nature, concretes are used sparingly in natural perfumery, providing depth and longevity to fragrance compositions. They are particularly valued for their ability to impart a true-to-nature scent, closely resembling the aroma of the fresh plant material. Concretes can be used directly in perfumery or further processed to obtain an absolute, which is a more refined and liquid form of the essence.

In summary, concrete is a solvent-extracted, waxy substance from botanical materials, prized for its rich and authentic aromatic properties in natural perfumery.


Creamy Jasmine BlossomsCreamyThe term "creamy" usually means a rich note that is silky, sensuous and sweet which may derive from soft vanilla, sandalwood, or coconut and sometimes from exotic, lush florals that naturally have nectarous qualities, such as jasmine or frangipani.


Cumin cuminum cyminum


Destructive Distillation

distillation of materials, seashells, woods or resins, which are intentionally burned, resulting in a material with a smoky, leathery bouquet


results of distillation


DistilationSeparation of the oil compounds within a botanical material through the use of heated water (see steam distillation, hydro distillation and destructive distillation)

Dry Down

the final stage of a perfume’s life on the skin; base/bottom notes which have the most tenacity within a perfume composition


Earthy Notes

refers to notes typified by mossy, moldy, dirty scents, such as patchouli, cepes (mushroom), tree mosses and vetyver

Eau de Cologne

same as Cologne; an essence composition utilizing primarily citrus oils and a high percentage of water; 3 – 5% perfume composition to alcohol and distilled water

Eau de Parfum

8 – 15% perfume composition blend to alcohol; sometimes incorporates less than 5% distilled water or floral hydrosol; second highest concentration of scent to diluent in perfume making